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4. Virtualization

The above use cases can be securely implemented using virtualization. So what is virtualization? Usually, an operating system communicates with the computer hardware. With virtualization, an operating system only appears to be communicating with the hardware, but in reality, it is communicating with another software layer. Therefore, the hardware is virtual, the operating system is running in a virtual machine. The mentioned software layer may be able to manage to handle several such virtual machines. Type 1 virtualization uses a "virtual machine monitor", also called "hypervisor", to manage the operating system. There is also type 2 virtualization, in which the operating system is handled just like an application, by another operating system. In cloud computing, or in any other use case, virtual machines can be migrated from one hardware system to another one.

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